We sampled chickadees from three different elevations

High elevation chickadees cached more food and performed better on spatial memory tests

Chickadees from higher elevation had larger hippocampi, had more and larger hippocampal neurons and had higher hippocampal neurogenesis rates

Differences in the hippocampus remain in captivity. Hippocmapus volume was reduced in captivity, but the differences between high and low elevations remained. The total number of neurons was not different between captive and wild chickadees

Chickadees from high end low elevations had to solve a novel problem - open the tube and get a warm

Frequently, faster problem solving is associated with less neophobia

We saw no signficant differences between high and low elevation chickadees